MLA Formats for Different Sources
Digital files are any documents, images or other media that exist in digital form, independent of a Web site.
Begin with information required for the source (such as a photograph, a report, a sound recording, or a radio program), following the guidelines for the specific source. Then for the medium, indicate the type of file: “JPEG file,” “PDF file,” “MP3 file,” and so on.
Hine, Lewis W. Girl in Cherryville Mill. 1908. Prints and Photographs Div., Lib. of Cong. JPG file.
“Scenes from a Recession.” This American Life. Narr. Ira Glass. NPR, 30 Mar. 2009. MP3 file.
National Institute of Mental Health. What Rescue Workers Can Do. Washington: US Dept. of Health and Human Services, 2006. PDF file.
Collins, Billy. "More than a Woman." Poetry Magazine. Poetry Foundation. February 2002. Web. 5 Dec. 2011. <http://www.poetryfoundation.org/poetrymagazine/browse/179/5#20605580>.
Nesbit, Edith. "Marching Song." Ballads and Lyrics of Socialism. London, 1908. Victorian Women Writers Project. Ed. Perry Willett. Indiana University, May 2000. Web. 26 June 2007. <http://www.indiana.edu/~letrs/vwwp/nesbit/ballsoc.html#p9>.
Newspaper article from a newspaper website:
Author Last Name, First Name. "Title of Article." Name of Website. Sponsor/Publisher of Website, Date of last update. Web. Date of Access. <URL> (optional).
Lattin, Don. "Religions Have Complicated Role in Globalization." SF Gate. San Francisco Chronicle, 23 February 2003. Web. 13 Nov. 2007. <http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/2003/02/23/LV133895.DTL>.
Bilmes, Linda J. and Joseph E. Stiglitz. "The Iraq War will Cost Us $3 Trillion, and Much More." Washingtonpost.com. Washington Post, 9 March 2008.Web. 27 May 2008. <http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/03/07/AR2008030702846.html>.
Video and Online Video
For videos not on the internet:
Title. Dir. Director’s First Name Last Name. Optionally you may add narr. (narrated by), perf. (performers), prod. (produced by), writ. (written by). Original release date, if relevant. Distributor, Year of current release. Medium.
Bioterror. Dir. Kirk Wolfinger. Prod. and Writer, Matthew Collins. WGBH Education Foundation, 2002. Videocassette.
Manufacturing Consent: Noam Chomsky and the Media. Dir. and Prod. Mark Achbar and Peter Wintonick. 1992. Zeitgeist Films, 2002. DVD.
The Tuxedo. Dir. Kevin Donovan. Prod. John H. Williams, and Adam Schroeder. Perf. Jackie Chan and Jennifer Love Hewitt. DreamWorks, 2002. Film.
For online videos:
Filmmaker's name, if available. Title. Date of the video itself. Title of Web site. Date the video was posted on the site. Medium of publication. Date of viewing. <URL.>
Sherman Alexie Speaks. 3 Nov. 2007. YouTube. 9 Nov. 2007. Web. 23 Apr. 2008. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NwiQb8OQ6dY>.
Citation description:Title of specific program. Author, Director or Narrator. Title of Series. Producing company. Network. Broadcasting station (if from local station rather than directly from a network). Date of broadcast. Medium of reception (e.g., Radio , Television ).
"Cuba and Cocaine." Narr. Bill Moyers. Frontline . Documentary Consortium. PBS. WTVS, Miami. 18 Jan. 2002. Television.
Artist, performer, composer, or conductor depending on which person is most responsible for the production or who you wish to emphasize. "Title of song" (if specifying.) Title of the recording (or the titles of the works included). Artist or artists (when distinct from a first-listed person or group). Manufacturer, year of issue (if the year is unknown, write n.d. ). Medium.
song from a compact disc:
Coltrane, John. "Giant Steps." The Last Giant: The John Coltrane Anthology. Rhino, 1993. CD.
No composer shown:
Lewiston, David. Fiestas of Peru: Music of the High Andes. LP. Nonesuch Records, 1972. Audiocassette.
Composer and performer different:
Guthrie, Woody. Pete Seeger Sings Woody Guthrie. Perf. Pete Seeger. Audiocassette. Folkways, 1968. LP.
Artist’s name; the title of the artwork, italicized; the date of composition; the medium of composition (for instance, “Lithograph on paper,” “Photograph,” “Charcoal on paper”); and the institution and city in which the artwork is located. For artworks found online, omit the medium of composition and include the title of the Web site, the medium (“Web”), and your date of access.
Constable, John. Dedham Vale. 1802. Oil on canvas. Victoria and Albert Museum, London.
Hessing, Valjean. Caddo Myth. 1976. Joslyn Art Museum, Omaha. Joslyn Art Museum. Web. 19 Apr. 2009.
Name the product or company being advertised, followed by the word “Advertisement.” Give publication information for the source in which the advertisement appears.
Truth by Calvin Klein. Advertisement. Vogue Dec. 2000: 95-98. Print.
Arbella Insurance. Advertisement. Boston.com. NY Times, n.d. Web. 3 June 2009.
Important: Always begin your citation with the name of the person interviewed.
Interview you saw on television or heard on the radio
Blackmun, Harry. Interview with Ted Koppel and Nina Totenberg. Nightline. ABC. WABC, New York . 5 Apr. 1994. Television.
Nader, Ralph. Interview with Ray Suarez. Talk of the Nation. Natl. Public Radio. KQED, San Francisco , 16 Apr. 1998. Television.
Interview you read in a magazine or newspaper
Lansbury, Angela. "The Grand Woman of Mystery Reveals Her Own Mysteries." People 15 June 2002: 52-55. Print.
Gordimer, Nadine. "Novelist Speaks of Life, Love, Travels." New York Times 10 Oct. 1991, late ed. : C25. Print.
Interview that you conducted
1) Name of the person interviewed; 2) The kind of interview (personal interview, telephone interview); 3) Date you conducted the interview
Smith, Will. Personal interview. 22 July 2003.
Spears, Britney. Telephone Interview. 10 Dec. 2002.
Lectures or Performances
Speaker. “Title” or description. Sponsoring event or course name. Location. Performance date. Type of performance (Address, Lecture, Keynote speech, Reading)
Westfall, Jeff. Lecture on homelessness. English 100. Skyline College. 7 Mar. 2007. Lecture.
Unpublished Documents (e.g., class handouts)
Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Document." Description of document (e.g. flyer, leaflet, memo or handout). Organization associated with document. City of production/distribution. Date of document. (If no date listed, enter: n.d.) Medium.
Note: If any of the above information is not given, leave the information out.
Jackson, Boris. "Security Policy." Memo to college faculty. Brookfield State College. Brookfield, MN. n.d. Print.
Class handout quoting another source
Author of quoted source. "Title of work from a published collection. (e.g. poem or article)." Title of Publication. (book or periodical). "Title of Handout." Handout. Title of course. (Name of instructor.) Name of school. Date of handout.
Note: If any of the above information is not given, leave the information out.
Aldiss, Brian. "Flight 063." Icarus Poems: A Selective Arachniography. Handout. Composition, Literature and Critical Thinking: English 110. (Professor Jeff Westfall.) Skyline College. Feb. 2006. Print.
Online Journal or Magazine
Article in an online journal:
Wysocki, Anne Frances. "Monitoring Order: Visual Desire, the Organization of Web Pages, and Teach the Rules of Design." Kairos: A Journal for Teachers of Writing in Webbed Environments 3.2 (Fall 1998). English Dept., Texas Tech University, Web. 21 Oct. 2007. <http://english.ttu.edu/kairos/3.2/features/wysocki/mOrder0.html>.
Article in an online magazine:
Fording, Laura. "Globalization and its Discontents." Newsweek MSNBC News, 1 Dec. 2003. Web. 1 Dec. 2007. <http://www.msnbc.com/news/999004.asp?0cv=KB20&cp1=1>.
eBook or online book or chapter
Citation Format for eBooks
Begin the entry in the works-cited list like the entry for a comparable printed work and end it with a designation of the medium of publication. The medium is the type of electronic file, such as Kindle file, Nook file, EPUB file, or PDF file. If you cannot identify the file type, use Digital file.
Rowley, Hazel. Franklin and Eleanor: An Extraordinary Marriage. New York: Farrar, 2010. Kindle file.
An online book may be the electronic text of part or all of a printed book, or a book-length document available only on the Internet (e.g., a work of hyperfiction).
Bird, Isabella L. A Lady's Life in the Rocky Mountains. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1881. Victorian Women Writers Project. Ed. Perry Willett. Indiana Univerity, 20 Apr. 1998. Web. 4 Oct. 2007. <http://www.indiana.edu/~letrs/vwwp/bird/rocky.html>.
Online book chapter:
Bryant, Peter J. "The Age of Mammals." Biodiversity and Conservation. University of California, Irvine, 2002. Web. 4 Oct. 2007. <http://darwin.bio.uci.edu/~sustain/bio65/lec02/b65lec02.htm>.
Webpage or website
NOTE: MLA format for online publications is not completely standardized. Various websites provide specific information on how to cite information from the Web according to their current interpretations of official citation formats.
General web page format:
- Author or editor's last name (if an author is given), first name, middle initial (if any)
- “Title of the Page.” (in quotation marks)
- Title of the Overall Website (in italics)
- Version or edition used
- Publisher or sponsor of the site (if not given, use n.p.)
- Date of publication (day, month, and year, as available). If not given, use n.d.
- Medium of publication (Web)
- Date of access (day, month, and year)
- URL (optional – provide if it helps your reader locate the source or if your instructor requires it). Enclose the URL in angle brackets and end with a period.
- NOTE : If you cannot locate any of the above components, leave it out.
NOTE : Each of the above sections of your citation is followed by a period, except the publisher or sponsor, which is followed by a comma.
Citation example (basic web page):Brenner, Eric. "Citing Sources." Skyline College Library. Skyline College, 28 May 2008. Web. 3 Dec. 2009. <http://www.skylinecollege.edu/library/citingsources.php>.
Barnes-Young, Christian. "Violent Media and Aggression." What They Play: The Family Guide to Video Games. What They Like, Inc., 2009. Web. 17 Nov. 2009. <http://www.whattheyplay.com/features/violent-media-and-aggression/>.
“Thai Idioms.” Thai-language.com. Internet Resource for the Thai Language. n.p. n.d. Web. 17 Nov. 2009. <http://www.thai-language.com/id/589868>.
"William Faulkner." William Faulkner on the Web. University of Mississippi , 6 Feb. 2003. Web. 20 Sept. 2007. http://www.mcsr.olemiss.edu/~egjbp/faulkner/faulkner.html.
Entire website or website homepage:
NAIC Online. National Association of Inventors Corporation,. 9 Sept. 2008. Web. 1 Oct. 2009. <http://www.better-investing.org/>.
U. S. Department of Education. US Dept. of Education, 21 Apr. 2007. Web. 1 Oct. 2009. <http://www.ed.gov/index.html>.
The William Faulkner Society. William Faulkner Society, 5 Oct. 2003. Web. 1 Oct. 2009. <http://www.english.ufl.edu/faulkner/>.
“SWC Teachers Suspended after Rally Participation.” Save Our Southwestern College . 23 Oct. 2009. Web. 17 Nov. 2009. <http://saveourswc.blogspot.com/2009/10/swc-teachers-suspended-after-rally.html>.
"Skyline College ." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia . 7 Nov 2009. Web. 17 Nov. 2009. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skyline_College.
Personal web page:
Bell, Rosemary. Home page. Fall 2003. Web. 1 Oct. 2009. <http://www.smccd.net/accounts/bellro/>.
References, e.g., Encyclopedias, online reference databases
Citation Format for Articles from Encyclopedias or Other Reference Sources, including Online Reference Sources
Article from a Major Print Encyclopedia
Author's last name, First name Middle initial (if any). [If no author listed, begin with article title.] "Title of Article: Subtitle of Article (if any)." Title of Encyclopedia or Other Reference Source. Year of Publication ed. Medium of publication.
Naisbitt, John, Thea K. Flaum and Oscar Handlin. "United States: Immigration." Encyclopaedia Britannica: Macropaedia. 1998 ed. Print.
Article from a Non-Major Print Encyclopedia or Other Reference Source
Author's last name, First name Middle initial (if any). [If no author listed, begin with article title.] "Title of Article: Subtitle of Article (if any)." Title of Encyclopedia or Other Reference Source. Ed. Encyclopedia Editor's name (if any). Edition (if not first edition). Number of volumes. Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication. Medium of publication.
Helweg, Arthur W. "Immigration." Encyclopedia of Social Issues. Ed. John K. Roth. 6 vols. New York: Marshall Cavendish, 1997. Print.
Article from an Online Encyclopedia or Other Online Reference Database
Author's last name, First name Middle initial (if any). [If no author listed, begin with article title.] "Title of Article: Subtitle of Article (if any)." Title of Encyclopedia or Other Reference Source. Date of Publication or Latest Update. Publisher, Sponsoring Organization or Website name. Medium of publication. Day Month Year of researcher's visit. <URL (web address) of the page>.
Berthoff, Roland. "United States of America: The People: Colonial and National Immigration." Encyclopedia Americana. 2004. Grolier Online. Web. 29 Mar. 2007. <http://www.go.grolier.com/gol>.
"Charles Dickens." Authors and Artists for Young Adults. Vol. 23. Gale Research, 1998. Biography Resource Center. 2004. Gale. Web. 26 Mar. 2007. <http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/BioRC>.
Print Newspaper Articles, including book reviews
Newspaper article (the following information is for paper copies of articles):
Author's last name, First name Middle initial (if any). "Article Title." Title of Newspaper Day Month (abbreviated except May, June, and July) Year: Section and page number(s) (if the article is not printed on consecutive pages, just give the first page followed by +). Medium of publication.
MacKenzie, Bill. "Packin' the Heat." San Francisco Chronicle 4 Nov. 1993: A16+. Print.
Book review article (the following information is for paper copies of articles):
Reviewer's last name, First name Middle initial (if any). "Article Title." (if more than "Book Review" and/or title of the book) Rev. of Title of Book, by Book author's first name Middle initial (if any) Last name. Title of the Periodical Volume and/or date and page information for the appropriate type of periodical as shown above. If the full text of the article is accessed from an electronic database, include database information and access date as shown below. Medium of publication.
Hendrickson, Donald. Rev. of The Case Against Immigration: The Moral, Economic Social and Environmental Reasons for Reducing United States Immigration Back to Traditional Levels, by Roy Howard Beck. Foreign Affairs 75.4 (July-August 1996): 146. Print.
Fukuyama, Francis. "No Vacancy." Rev. of The Case Against Immigration: The Moral, Economic Social and Environmental Reasons for Reducing United States Immigration Back to Traditional Levels, by Roy Howard Beck. New York Times Book Review 1 Sept. 1996:18. Print.
Print Magazines and Journals
Magazine article (the following information is for paper copies of articles):
Author's last name, First name Middle initial (if any). "Title of Article." Title of Magazine Day (if given) Month (abbreviated except May, June, and July) Year: Page numbers of article (if the article is not printed on consecutive pages, give the first page followed by a +). Medium of publication.
Bazell, Robert. "Science and Society: Growth Industry." New Republic 15 Mar. 1993: 13-14. Print.
Frank, Michael. "The Wild, Wild West." Architectural Digest June 1993: 180+. Print.
Journal article (the following information is for paper copies of articles):
Author's Last name, First name Middle initial (if any). "Title of article." Journal title Volume number. Issue number (if each issue number begins on page 1) (Date of publication): page numbers. Medium of publication.
Babrow, Austin S. "Student Motives for Watching Soap Operas." Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 31.3 (Summer 1997): 309-321. Print.
Citation Format for Books
Books with a single author:
Author's last name, First name Middle initial (if any). Title. Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication. Medium of Publication.
Gamson, Joshua. R. Claims to Fame: Celebrity in Contemporary America. Berkeley: University of California Press,1994. Print.
Books with two, three or more authors:
First author's last name, First name Middle initial (if any), and Second author's First name Middle initial (if any) Last name. Title. Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication.
Note: For a book with three authors, list all three author's names. Only the first author's name should be listed last name first. For a book with more than 3 authors, list only the first author's name followed by a comma and the words et al.
Stewart, David W., and David H. Furse. Effective Television Advertising: A Study of 1000 Commercials. Lexington: Lexington Books, 1986. Print.
Jonson, Albert, Thomas Gray, and Jessie Muncy. Information Access. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992. Print.
Baker, Nellie, et al. Book Publishing. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992. Print.
Books with editor(s) rather than author(s):
Editor's last name, First name Middle initial (if any), ed. Title. Place of publication: Year of publication. Medium of Publication.
Baughman, Cynthia, ed. Women on Ice: Feminist Essays on the Tonya Harding/Nancy Kerrigan Spectacle. New York: Routledge, 1995. Print.
Essay, article, story, poem or chapter in a book with an editor (if the book is an anthology of works by multiple writers):
Author's last name, First name Middle initial (if any). "Title of Chapter or Essay." Title of Book. Ed. Editor's first and last name. Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication. Page numbers for the chapter. Medium of Publication.
Fox, Aaron A. "Split Subjectivity in Country Music and Honky-Tonk Discourse." All That Glitters: Country Music in America. Ed. George H. Lewis. Bowling Green, Ohio: Bowling Green State University Popular Press, 1993. 131-139. Print.
Essay, article, story, or poem in a book that is an anthology of works by a single author (If the specific literary work is part of an author's own collection, i.e. all of the works have the same author, then there will be no editor to reference):
Author's last name, First name Middle initial (if any). "Title of Essay, Article, Story, or Poem." Title of Book. Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication. Page numbers for the essay, article, story, or poem. Medium of Publication.
Whitman, Walt. "I Sing the Body Electric." Selected Poems. New York: Dover, 1991. 12-19. Print.
Carter, Angela. "The Tiger's Bride." Burning Your Boats: The Collected Stories. New York: Penguin, 1995. 154-69. Print.
Article from a database
Article for which only the abstract (summary) of the article is accessed from an online periodical database on the World Wide Web (such as Medline database on PubMed):
Article information as shown above for magazine, journal or newspaper. Abstract. Title of Database. Name of database service or publisher. Medium of publication. Date of researcher's access. <URL (electronic address)> (The URL is optional. Also, because the length of the URL may sometimes be excessively long, the cited URL may be either the complete address for the web page of the full-text article or the basic address for accessing the database).
LeGrand, E. K. "Potential Risk of Enhancing Survival of Infected Cells." Journal of the American Veterinary Medicine Association 213.12 (15 Dec. 1998): 1698. Abstract. Medline. PubMed. Web. 18 Feb. 2006. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov>.
Article accessed from an online library periodical database (such as Gale, or Proquest web-based databases):
Citation description: Use the appropriate article format for magazine, journal, or newspaper, then add: Title of Database. Name of database service or publisher. Medium of publication. Date of researcher's access. <URL (electronic address)>. (The URL is optional.)
a. Popular magazine article from PowerSearch databases (click here to see actual article from the database):
Adler, Jonathan H. "A Child's Garden of Misinformation." Consumers' Research Magazine Sept. 1993: 11+. General OneFile. Gale. Web. 8 May 2008.
b1. Academic journal article from Proquest Psychology database (click here to see actual article from the database):
Dodge, Brian, et. al. "Sexual Compulsivity Among Heterosexual College Students." The Journal of Sex Research 41.4 (Nov 2004): 343+. ProQuest Psychology Journals. Proquest. Web. 21 Nov. 2009.
b2. Academic journal article from History In Context database (click here to see actual article from the database):
Hoganson, Kristin. " ‘As Badly Off As The Filipinos’: U.S. Women's Suffragists and the Imperial Issue at the Turn of the Twentieth Century." Journal of Women's History13.2 (Summer 2001): 9+. U.S. History in Context . Gale. Web. 21 Nov. 2009.
c. Newspaper article from PowerSearch databases (click here to see actual article from the database):
Nevius, C. W. "Homeless Remedy: Serve San Francisco First." San Francisco Chronicle 20 Dec. 2008: A1+. Student Resource Center - Gold. Gale. Web. 8 May 2010.
d. A complete academic journal article reprinted in a collected volume from Literature Resource Center database (click here to see actual article from the database):
McFarland, Ron. "Sherman Alexie's Polemical Stories." Studies in American Indian Literatures: The Journal of the Association for the Study of American Indian Literatures. 9.4 (Winter 1997): 27-38. Rpt. in Short Story Criticism. Vol. 107. Detroit: Gale. Literature Resource Center. Gale. Web. 1 Dec. 2009.
e. An excerpt from an academic journal article reprinted in a collected volume from Literature Resource Center database(click here to see actual article from the database):
Ullman, Leslie. "Betrayals and Boundaries: A Question of Balance." Kenyon Review. 15.3 (Summer 1993): 186. Excerpt in Contemporary Literary Criticism Select. Detroit: Gale. Literature Resource Center. Gale. Web. 1 Dec. 2008.
f. Article from a book from the Opposing Viewpoints In Context database(click here to see actual article from the database):
Lunneborg, Patricia. "An Unwanted Pregnancy Justifies an Abortion." Opposing Viewpoints: Abortion. Ed. Tamara L. Roleff. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 1997. Opposing Viewpoints In Context. Gale. Web. 21 Nov. 2008.
g. Book review article from an academic journal from PowerSearch databases(click here to see actual article from the database):
Forman, James, Jr. Rev. of Let's Get Free: A Hip-Hop Theory of Justice, by Paul Butler. Michigan Law Review 108.6 (April 2010): 993+. General OneFile. Gale. Web. 21 Nov. 2010.